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    Ramble – China’s Architectural Education: Li Zhenyu, Dean of CAUP, Tongji University

    Build Tongji as an AUL-port, creating a profound, open and diverse learning environment for students.

    Project Specs

    Design Firm:
    Location:

    信步辑,闲庭信步看世界。gooood的信步辑拥有许多子分类。这里是“中国建筑教育”子分类。我们将对话中国教育界的专业人士,倾听他们对于当今中国建筑教育的看法与建议,以期为读者提供更加学术化的视野。第二期对话同济大学建筑城规学院院长李振宇。更多关于:Tongji University on gooood

    Rumble, to take a glance at the world by wandering. Ramble is an album including many sub-albums, and this sub-album is about China’s architectural education. Here is the second episode where we have a conversation with Li Zhenyu, dean of CAUP, Tongji University. More: Tongji University on gooood

     

    ▼视频 Video (全文深度采访见下方文字。视频为5分钟精华版,建议选择蓝光1080p观看。)

     

     

     

    Interview

    gooood x 李振宇

    (Please scroll down to see the English text)

     

     

    同济大学建筑与城市规划学院的发展概况与特色是什么? 

    在全世界范围来看,我们主要有四个非常鲜明的特色。

    1学校和学院的文化和精神

    学校的精神是“同舟共济”;学院的文化,冯纪忠先生归纳出来八个字,叫做“缜思畅想,博采众长”,胸怀要大,要有一种主动学习、主动发现的多元的、开放的、在前进、在变化的心态。因此同济建筑与城市规划学院里面有非常好的学术底蕴,有非常好的传承,有非常好的学术民主思想。

    拿文远楼举例,有人说它是中国包豪斯,是第一栋被列入遗产保护的1949年以后建造的建筑。实际上,文远楼当时是一位年仅27岁的年轻老师和一位年长的老师共同合作的结果。再说C楼,这个项目是2003年由一位33岁的年轻讲师设计的,他的方案在内部评选中中标了。我没中标,我的同事没中标,我的老师也没中标,这样的例子在全世界的建筑学院里面都非常少见。今天C楼已经成为了我们学院文化一个重要的场所,有很多其他学校的建筑学学生背着相机,穿着黑衬衫来拍照;而设计它的年轻老师就是现在“同济建筑八骏”之一的张斌老师(更多请至:Atelier Z+ on gooood)。

    ▼同济大学建筑与城市规划学院鸟瞰,bird view of CAUP, Tongji University

    ▼同济大学建筑与城市规划学院教学楼(左:文远楼,右:ABC广场)
    teaching buildings of CAUP, Tongji University (left: Wenyuan Building, right: ABC plaza)

    ▼C楼前的下沉广场,sunken plaza in the front of C Building

    学院的传承很重要。一些老先生,像规划大师金经昌,园林大师陈从周,创始教授李德华、罗小未教授都有留下文献(文集)。这个传承也是博采众长。回溯过去,1952年建系之初我们就是兼收并蓄的。我们以现代主义为主,而现代主义里包容了不同的流派,许多学术思想在这里可以共生。

    ▼B楼内的共享空间(点击这里查看更多),sharing space in B Building (click HERE to view more)

    2把握学术前沿

    50年代的时候,我们就关注现代主义,这对于全中国,甚至全世界的建筑系来说都是比较前卫的。对此,清华大学张利老师就写过一篇文章,叫《同济,一枚开启中国建筑现代性的钥匙》。我们各个时期都在追求创新的东西,追求前沿的东西。到了1980年代,我们开始关注现代主义之后的多元思想,如后现代主义、结构主义、极简主义,等等。

    除了建筑,我们的关注点还包括规划思想,如田园城市,或者柯布西耶的城市规划理念。我们在80年代就能够把社会、交通、经济、产业等各各方面的东西融合在一起,进行多元的努力。到了2003年,学院提出了四个新的发展方向:生态城市,绿色建筑,数字设计,遗产保护。这15年来,我们在这四个方向有了很大的收获。

    生态城市方面,我们在以吴志强老师为代表的智慧城市规划上有了长足的进步,对全世界的学科发展产生了我们自己的影响。在数字设计建造方面,袁烽教授(更多请至: Archi-Union Architects on gooood)虽然年轻,但是他带来的冲击对整个建筑学的发展,对建筑设计理念的改变,做出了很大的贡献。他已经成为了全世界在这个领域里面最优秀的中青年教师之一。再说遗产保护,城市更新和再利用这些方面,经过几代人连续不断的努力,我们也取得了不少成果。比如说以前陈从周先生做的还我自然,对城市,旧建筑和传统园林的研究。后来董鉴弘先生研究城市历史,阮仪三先生保护江南六镇,平遥等许多中国南北方的城市。此外,常青院士,周俭老师,年轻的邵雍教授等,他们都在这个领域里做出了很大的贡献。我们还有一个历史建筑材料病理实验室,研究怎样把这些历史遗产,以新的理念和新的技术来进行保护。我们不仅仅使用原有的技术和工艺,还结合了现在的病理分析,对木作、石作、砖作、灰作建筑分门别类,进行更深的研究,最后的反响特别好。比如说天安门前的金水桥,它在建国60年大典之前的修复是我们同济戴仕炳教授的成果;再比如西藏小布达拉宫的复建,海南的骑楼,大家都知道的周庄、桐里、乌镇、西塘等等,这些项目里都有我们同济老师和学生的努力。

    ▼16届威尼斯建筑双年展上袁烽及团队运用机器人改性塑料打印技术创造的作品“云市”(点击这里查看更多)
    Cloud Village in Biennale Architettura 2018, built with modified plastic material by the robotic printing technology, developed by the Philip F. Yuan and his team (click HERE to view more)

    学术前沿是人才培养的动力,我们都有时代的责任,我们现在面临的挑战跟40年前不一样。在这个全球化的进程当中,我们扮演的角色越来越重要,我们掌握的信息越来越多,如果我们不善用这些信息,就等于是自废武功。

    现在中国的青年学生,他们能得到的信息,能掌握的技术,和欧美学生是一样的,因为大家都有网络,大家的英语能力都很强。时光倒流40年,我做学生的时候不是这样的。我们能掌握的资料信息非常狭窄,跟欧美的学生根本没有办法等量齐观。所以这是一个完全不同的新时代,有新的方法、新的理念、新的技术、新的手段,我们的教学方式也应该相应地作做出改变。

    3国际合作

    国际合作为同济的建筑教育、规划教育、风景园林教育插上了金色的翅膀。国际合作给我们带来的变化不仅仅是国际合作项目本身,更是让我们可以胸怀祖国,放眼世界。既扎根中国大地,又以天下为己任。这个天下不再仅仅是我们眼前的天下,这个天下是我们目力所及的天下。

    现在我们有29个创新案例中,绝大多数都跟我们的人才培养有关。我们的一年级会举办国际建造节,我们的二年级开始有海外写生,海外游学。我们的毕业班,或高年级有国际联合设计;我们的研究生有19个双向双学位联培项目,每年送出去95个学生;我们还接受国外知名大学的55个学生来读我们的学位。我们的博士有国际博士生院,我们的科研有国际合作联合实验室。我们每年请来的公开讲座中会有150场国际报告;我们每年会请十个左右的模块化专家,所有的普利兹克奖获得者当中,有50%的人来我们学院做过讲座。这里已经成为了一个国际的建筑规划园林教育的学术交流中心。

    ▼同济大学代表队在第三届国际高校建造大赛上的作品“趣村乡戏”(点击这里查看更多)
    Q-Village Theater by Tongji University Team in the 3rd International University Construction Competition (click HERE to view more)

    4资源分享

    我们要把同济建成为AUL-port,不是airport。这个port里面不管是大船、小船、大飞机、小飞机,都能到同济来分享我们的教育资源,分享我们对学术、对专业的理想和信念,还能与设计实践相结合。

    我们现在的学生,他们的国际化眼光比起欧美同学,比起世界最知名大学的学生来说,丝毫不差,甚至机会更多。当然在国际化上面,我们也有我们的局限性,主要体现在两点:第一个是我们常任的国际老师不多,还在十个以内;第二个是我们的国际学生中拿学位的本科生还不够多,我们本科生现在只收一个小班,完全面对国际学生,全英语教学。目前我们大概有150个左右的留学生,其中1/3是学历学位生,是来跟着我们的课程读到大学毕业的;还有1/3叫学位生或者双学位生,他们主要是来一年,通过双学位机制来拿同济的学位;剩下的1/3是选了我们的课,来一个学期或者两个学期。

    在这里我们把国际化做到了一个比较好的一个水平。也正是由于国际化,我们成为了世界上最好的建筑学院之一。在过去的四年多里,大概有80多个学院派过代表团来到同济大学建筑学院学习,我们在建筑与建成环境QS排行榜里面排全球第18位,已经进入了第一集团的第二方阵。但是排名只是一部分,更重要的还是口碑,是大家真正的内涵。要有我们的特色,有更大的影响力。

    ▼国际合作课程(左:国际建造节,右:版画拓印)
    International Workshops (left: International Building Festival, right: lithographic print)

     

     

     

    全球化背景下,同济与世界名校的交流合作在教学上有哪些体现和成果?同时在全球化冲击下,同济培育优秀人才、优秀建筑人才的核心理念进行了哪些调整?

    全方位、多层次、高水平、有特色,这是我们在国际化上努力的目标。

    什么叫全方位?从学生一年级一直到博士毕业,甚至于博士后,整个过程里面都有国际化的内容,而且这个内容的辐射是比较强的。就像前面所说,一年级结束的时候有个国际建造节,会有模块化教授来对一年级学生进行指导。我们跟欧美的学校在学期上会有一到两个月的时间差,利用这个时间差,我们可以请一线大学的一线教授来给我们学生上课。我们现在的实验室就是训练学生怎么从网络世界里走出来。网络有它的优势,但是也不能完全依靠网络。怎么用手来思考?怎么用手来触摸世界?这是我们一年级要做的事情。在建造节中,每年会有五六十栋纸板箱的房子造出来,其中一半是同济的,另外1/4是国内各高校的,还有不到1/4就是国际大学的。像今年来了七八所大学,有加拿大的、意大利的、法国的、德国的、奥地利的,等等。这样,学生在一年级的时候,就会觉得自己是一个地球人,不仅能看到眼前的,还能看到整个建筑界的发展。

    我们有很多专业是第一个建的。历史建筑保护工程是我们新建的一个专业,到现在大概有15年了,它在中国是最早建立的,在全世界也比较领先。此外,我们的规划是第一批建的,风景园林是工科学校中第一个建的 ,工业设计是在建筑学院里第一个建的。首创的过程,其实也是国际交流合作的一种学习。我们历史建筑保护工程的学生,会全体去威尼斯做写生。我们的校友设立了一个旅行奖,每年选12个学生,从美国的东海岸到西海岸去做城市调研,去做大学参访,去做关于美国大中型设计院的访问,条件非常好。

    我们的设计课最多的时候一年有40个Joined Studio,现在控制在每年十几个。我们能够为研究生提供36门英语课程,有的是中国老师开的,少数是外国老师开的,中国学生和外国学生同堂听课。所有的博士生进来以后都要加入到国际博士生院里,并且我们的资源对全国开放,欢迎兄弟院校的博士生也能加入进来。我们还能欢迎国外的博士生,比如说米兰理工,日本的大学,美国的大学、德国大学,他们会派博士来参加我们的博士论坛。

    从本科,到硕士、博士,在这个人才培养的过程当中国际合作的例子太多了。如果说得再夸张一点,你都不用说国际化。因为你本身的工作就是在一个globalization的背景下,立足中国,放眼世界。

    ▼中外学生共修的国际化课程,International class where Chinese and foreign students learning together

     

     

    几年前同济开始对本科生实行导师制度,其优势在哪里?几年时间下来有哪些成果?

    本科生的双导师制是我们2014年开始推行的,到今天它已经在全校推广了。我们当时定的叫四个词:自愿、业余、双向、无偿。自愿是指老师要自己愿意来担任导师;双向是说学生选老师,老师选学生,它是用电脑来抽签,完全平等的。比如老师在电脑上报名,说今年可以担任导师,接受两位本科生学生。新生入学以后,他们就会自己到大屏幕上去敲,敲到是谁就是谁。不仅仅局限于建筑学,可能会收到风景园林的学生,可能会收城市规划的学生。它不占课时,是为了在业余的情况下,学生能够跟老师有一种联系。今年学校做了改革,由学生去选导师,单向了。学生一大早就开机,每人选两个导师,抢完就拉倒。我觉得这个制度它的精神意义大于物质意义。根据我自己的体验,学生有了这样一位导师,他心里就有底了。在学习、生活、思想上碰到问题的时候,他可以去找导师谈,甚至去找老师所带的研究生谈。这样他就有归属感,有了一个家的感觉。

    找到一个能够交流的年长的老师,这一点非常重要,但是我们也不是说把所有的希望都放在导师制身上。我们当然希望到了三年级以后,有一个校友导师来担任他的tutor,但是这个事情我们要做得比较谨慎。因为学生的时间有限,校外导师的时间也有限。我们在做,也在总结经验,这个方向我觉得是对的。

     

     

    您认为建筑与城市规划学院的教学理念和方针需要迎合市场的发展趋势吗?学校教学应该为行业的发展以及社会的责任做出哪些贡献?

    1五个需求

    我觉得要改一个词,不能叫迎合,应该叫结合。迎合和结合是不一样的。我们的责任很多,一个真正优秀的一流大学是不以就业为导向的,但是如果要培养一个职业建筑师,你又是要跟市场、跟社会的需求吻合。我们前任的校长说了,我们要研究五个需求。

    第一个需求是学生的需求,第二个需求是家长的需求,第三个需求是社会的需求,第四个需求是学科的需求,第五个需求是学校的需求。它们是不同的,我们要更加多元和开放,要兼顾到不同的需求。有一个家长问:李老师,我们的学生就业情况怎么样?我回答了两句话,第一,就业情况一直非常好。如果你足够优秀的话,这个就业的情况会更好。然而孔夫子讲有教无类,一流的大学不能仅仅满足于培养找得到好工作的学生,还应该教他们怎么用自己的聪明才智为社会做出不同的贡献。你去做一个合格的建筑师,这是一种贡献;如果你能在理论、技术、思想或教学科研上有所突破,也是为社会做贡献。我认为不应该把它们对立起来,既不能说实用的东西都不够高,也不能说那些充满了理想和憧憬、甚至冒着失败的风险在做的研究都没用。

    教育应该是多层次全方位的。我们的理念回到冯纪忠先生说的那句话就是“博采众长”。我们要为我们的学生创造一个博雅的、开放的、多元的学习环境,不能局限于某一种教学方法。我们希望老师们能在教学中把自己的看家本领都能发扬光大。袁峰老师的教法,吴志强老师的教法和李振宇的教法就应该是不同的。如果我们三个人教的都一样,那我们就变成了讲课机器,就是照本宣科了。我们要通过自己的体验、自己的感悟,把它化为一种影响力,化为一种对答。

    2四个变化

    在现在大的背景下面,我们的高等教育面临着四个变化。第一个是Information,信息时代。信息传播得非常快,你这里说明天那里就知道。同时信息也在碎片化,网上和现实是不一样的。第二个是Globalization,全球化。那里发生的事情这里很容易就知道。现在每个学生都有手机,他获得信息的种类和速度不比你差,但是深度和理解可能老师更有优势一点。第三个就是Competition。因为有了全球化,信息化,我们的竞争是很明了的。它有排名,它有各种各样的数据,谁都知道。最后一个是Cooperation,就是合作或者是机制化。不仅仅是老师和同学合作,还有更多方面的合作。

    3大学成为五个P2P平台

    我的理想是把大学建成五个P2P的平台。第一个是people topeople,人和人。只有在大学里,人们才会不计成败得失地讨论一个问题。你在公司里、政府里、机关里,估计大家都没耐心花20分钟讨论一个空谈的问题。但是大学的课堂上、在设计课上、在课后辅导课上,老师和学生之间的交流非常重要。

    第二个是people to paper,大学就是要培养学生科研的能力,不是说原来是这样就是这样。要去进一步思考原来是这样现在会更好吗?效率会更高吗?作用会更大吗?意义会更深刻吗?

    第三个叫people to project,我们希望我们的学生有把一个project完成的能力。什么叫project?在我们的心目中,一场诗歌朗诵会、一次远足郊游、一个展览、一个报告会、拍一个录像、写一篇文章、做一件事情、编一本书都是一个project。我们的学生,尤其是中国学生,从小到大都是被家长、老师抱大的,他们单兵作战的能力不是很强。拿做采访为例,你可能考虑很多要素,交通、空间、电池、交流方式、是不是要一起吃饭、喝谁的水,等等。它是一个系统的工程。我们要让学生在大学里把这个阶段完成,要训练他独立地完成一个设计、做一件事,并且能够跟他人友好合作。

    第四个是people to practice。建筑学是实践的科学,有相当一部分人,最后会去做职业建筑师、职业规划师、职业园林设计师、职业工程师。所以要为职业的东西打好基础。

    ▼同学实际参与项目建造,students participated into the building process of a project

    最后一个是peoples to peoples,它意味着在大学里面不同机构的人能够相聚在一起。哈佛大学,mit,或者ETH,他们会到我们这里来,我们远隔万里汇在一起。政府机构、非政府组织、工业界、或者一个技术公司,传媒、新闻、文化都能够在这里交汇。我们要为我们的学生创造这样的一片天地。我们不想把学生培养成读书的机器,不想把他们变成一个守成的机器,我们希望给他们更多的选择和自由,特别是本科生。

    本科生要更加的多元,要博雅、开放。应该让他们知道自己最合适做什么,而不是我们教给他。五年里面,我们有严格的专业训练,但是如果光有严格的训练,没有一个开阔的视野,没有一个胸怀,没有创新的精神,那是不够的。如果说一流大学培养什么人的话,那一定不是仅仅培养一个就业者。我们要培养一个充满理想、有实干精神,有创新理念,并且能够最终把它实现或部分实现的领军人才。

    ▼院长办公室内的照片墙,展现同济建筑与城市规划学院与外界合作发展的成果,Photo wall in the Dean’s office, showing the approaches in various aspects of CAUP

     

     

    您认为目前我国建筑学科教育在哪些方面需要有所加强和提高?

    建筑学面临的新的转型是什么?首先是从经验到算法。过去我们靠体验来决定一个空间盖多大,现在我们有算法、有人工智能、有计算机。第二个是从专属到共享,原来一个房间是一个办公室,以后可能就是流动办公了,数字化之后更是到哪里都可以办工,相应的办公室的空间形式也会发生变化。 第三个是从建构到生态,我们做什么和不做什么同样重要。过去我们主要教学生做什么,现在我们还要教他不做什么,以避免对环境的破坏。第四个是从现代到当代。现代就是现代主义,它对我们的影响很大,有诸多的流派和风格。同时我们也要关注当代出现了什么新的事物,发展现代主义中没有想到的东西。最后一个是从美学到社会。我觉得这五点都是值得我们探究的。

    还有就是不要抱着自己能够“教会”学生的幻想,我们教会他是因为他自身的学习能力。我们没有办法再像40年前一样,那时候知识是固定的,你要做一个合格的建筑师,必须会一二三四五六七八九十。现在不是了。20年以后,建筑师到底需要哪些知识和能力,我们今天没有办法一一回答。

    社会变化得非常快,怎么办?要以开放、多元、包容和鼓励的心态去面对。我们不能再抱着teach的心态,我们要跟学生一块成长。我们进入了一个“互谕”时代,王建国老师说:“从师谕到互谕”。我非常赞成。我们不仅要让老师教学生,还要让学生教老师,甚至让学生之间互相教。我希望我们的建筑学教育更加开放、多元、包容,更加关注年轻人的想法、向年轻人学习。

     

     

    作为中国顶级建筑与城市规划学院院长,请您对广大学子提几句建议。

    第一,我觉得要热爱生活。每一个阶段我们都会碰到不同的挑战,但是作为一个建筑师,对生活的热爱和关注是我们的初心。我们怎么为人类创造更美好的空间环境,或者大一点叫人居环境?是要有心在里面的。如果我都不用心,这也无所谓,那也无所谓,那是做不好建筑的,所以第一是要热爱。

    第二,要有动态的开放的心态。总的来说每个学科都有自身的规律,但这些规律是在演变当中的,它在不断地发展,所以要以包容的眼光和心态来接受新事物。

    第三,要有类型学的贡献你作为一个设计师,你作为一个建筑学人,你有什么跟别人不一样的贡献?你为我们整个中国的建筑事业和建筑学研究,会做出哪些跟别人不一样的东西?有一句话说中国的才是世界的,放在这里就是要把个人的创造和社会的需求相结合。你既不能只见森林不见树,也不能只见树木,不见森林。个体和群体之间要形成一种互动。

     

     

    您拥有留德背景,也在中德两国学术交流与文化交流方面颇有建树,请问您认为德国在建筑与城市规划方面最值得中国借鉴的地方有哪些?

    建树不敢当,但是确实中德交流是我从事国际交流工作做出一点微薄努力的起点。

    我觉得德国有三样东西值得我们学习。第一就是德国是现代建筑的发源地。包豪斯,以及除了包豪斯以外从1910年开始的20多年间,德国对现代主义的发展做出了巨大的贡献。 我们知道格鲁皮乌斯,密斯,包括柯布西耶,他们在德国都有实践。

    第二点,德国在80年代做了一件大事,它把全世界的建筑师都请到西柏林,举办了一个建筑博览会,造了将近200个项目,对以前的一些工作进行了回顾和批判。会中提出了两个口号,一个叫谨慎的更新,一个叫批判的重构。我觉得我们现在正是研究谨慎的保护和批判的重构的最好时机。那个时候是1987年,我们现在是2018年,我们现在面临的问题和德国30年前面临问题是一样的,因此他们30年前所做的事情值得我们来回采。当然不是说都能模仿,但是那些思路和做法值得我们学习。

    ▼李振宇院长与德国住宅研究相关的出版物,publications of Li Zhenyu about residential architecture in Germany

    第三,德国建筑师、德国建筑界的同行对于建筑的追求和品味值得我们学习。我开了一门课叫中德建筑比较,今年有30多个中国学生和30多个外国学生选修。比较来说,其实中国人和德国人本质上差距很小,都是热情、勤劳、智慧的人民,但是表现方式不一样。中国人是内热外热,德国人是外冷内热。德国人计划做得一丝不苟,长期思考,充分准备,然后积极介入。中国人撸起袖子干,快速地介入,宁可不断地调整计划。你说完全学会德国人的思想方法,那是不可能的。我们只能借鉴。我们对德国能借鉴的就是质量,美学和品位。德国人对于建筑部件,如门窗、把手、甚至抽水马桶的质量要求非常高,设计费也非常高。在德国设计2000平米的住宅的设计费在中国能够造2000平米,所以它质量高。美学的追求在他们的工作当中占的比例很高。“建筑如果不是艺术的话,那还是什么?”这是我的德国老师和同事经常跟我说的。另外它的品味是低调的,是克制的。中国人是热情的,是奔放的,这点上可以相互学习,能学到很多东西。其实不光是中德交流,中欧的交流,中美的交流,中日的交流都很重要。我们讲博采众长,一定不是只学一家。德国是我国际合作的起步,也是重要的组成部分之一。

    ▼中德建筑比较上课场景,邀请gmp合伙人尼古拉斯·格茨特进行特邀讲座
    Teaching scene in the class of Comparison between Chinese and German Architecture, gmp partner Nikolaus Goetze giving a special speech

    点击查看:德国项目 on gooood

     

     

    您对中国居住建筑的研究高屋建瓴,您认为中国现在居住建筑与环境有哪些遗憾?同时你心中未来中国理想的居住建筑与环境是什么样的?

    点击查看:居住项目 on gooood

    我们有很多好的例子,但是我对自己的工作还不太满意。对于居住建筑,我不说批判,我有三条建议。

    第一条建议我们的保障性住房,我们的动迁房、安置房不应该过于标准化,要追求统一中的参差多态。我们不应该片面地追求工业化。像现在做住宅要求pc、装配化、预制率,有意无意地约束了多元性。如果你做的动迁安置区里面十栋房子都是一样的,我要是规划局局长或者专家委员会,我就不会同意。拿服装举例,我发现建筑城规学院的学生有一件衣服非常合适,它最便宜、效率最高也好看,每人穿一件行不行?事实证明是不行的。你穿的衣服跟我穿的衣服就是不一样,你出去愿意跟人撞衫吗?我们衣服不愿意跟人撞衫,为什么我们的小区有那么多撞衫?这是我们的政策导向,评价标准,和经济上的一些控制导致的。

    第二条我觉得我们不能片面地要求提高标准。比如说我们中国住宅的日照标准是最严厉的日照标准,我们为了保障个体的权利,牺牲了很多公权。很多的地方都在做低层高密度,比如说巴塞罗那,比如说柏林,他们的生活有一种共性。假如两栋楼距离很远,造得很高。从个体来说,你的房间阳光是够了,朝向是好了,但是对城市环境来说,你却是被孤立了。所以我们要在公权和私权之间找到一个平衡点,不能为了片面追求市场,而放弃了对城市面貌的控制。

    ▼住区设计作品 – 青岛湖光山色,Residential community design project – Qingdao Huguang Shanse

    ▼住区设计作品 – 青岛长春花园和第二实验中学,Residential community design project – Qingdao Changchun Garden and No. 2 Experimental Middle School

    ▼住区设计作品 – 都江堰壹街区,Residential community design project – Dujiangyan Yi Block

    第三个我觉得现在有一个好的变化就是人人有房住。我们可以充分发挥多种居住的体系,而不同的体系会影响形式。我们现在为租赁而设计的住宅太少了。如果我们能有一些稳定的为租赁设计的,不管是非盈利的还是经营性的住宅,它能够为青年、为收入不太高的中产阶级提供稳定租住的房屋的话,那这个城市就会更加的多元、更加开放、更加有意思。像新加坡,凡是公共投资的小区它必须是开放的,但如果是商业化投资的,那就可以封闭。这就是一个利益的平衡了。我们现在不管是公家投资的还是私人投资的,都给封闭了。再比如说停车位,不管是廉租房还是保障房,都是千篇一律的,我觉得这个要求是可以调整的。 应该有针对性地鼓励多元、鼓励个性、鼓励多样,不应该一刀切。

    我们不是无能为力的,我是个乐观主义者,我们能够呼吁大家一起来把事情做好的。

    ▼同济大学嘉定校区学生宿舍及专家公寓,Student Dormitory and Professor Apartment in Jiading Campus, Tongji University

    我们如果把一个单一的目标认为成是理想的,那我们可能就简单了。好的东西应该各不相同。理想只能说是参差多态,各有各的好。我们不能说贝多芬的音乐好,就不要莫扎特。对我来说,设计上我也有几个愿望,虽然我做的还不够。第一个愿望是要有空间的类型学的贡献,你做出来的东西能够给人带来惊喜。我们做设计的人,带一个箱子、一个包、一个小装饰物、一个手机,都要给你带来惊喜,有些时候是喜欢它的功能,有些时候就是喜欢它的设计。 那么建筑作为这么大的一个设计,为什么不能给人带来惊喜?第二个,我提倡要为人们创造良好的景观,我们的设计当中应该多注入景观的因素,以景观为导向进行设计。第三个,我们要关注中介空间,即是半公共半私密的空间。第四个我们要有形式上的创新,不能简单沿用以前的形式。比如说我们如果有个江南古镇,有一段要再造第二期第三期,我比较反对按照明清复古风再建一个。 我赞成的是要有自己新的创造。

    ▼同济大学嘉定校区学生宿舍及专家公寓,Student Dormitory and Professor Apartment in Jiading Campus, Tongji University

     

     

    您目前在创作上关注哪些问题?

    我在创作上最关心的是共享。我写了一篇文章叫《迈向共享建筑学》,准备在由共享带来的形式变化上做点东西。我以前还提了一个“白话建筑、类型贡献”。白话建筑就是关注日常。有些大师不屑于做一些东西,认为太俗,比如说商品住宅小区。但这恰恰是跟人们生活关系最密切的。类型贡献就说用普通的材料、普通的形式做出不普通的东西,比如空间表达等形式上的创新,这些是我想追求的。我们经过八年设计的中国驻慕尼黑总领馆,在一个月前刚刚开馆了。这个建筑只有12000多平米,我们当时提出的口号叫“和而不同”。因为是在德国造一个中国总领馆,我们既不愿意拿一个中国的大屋顶放过去,做一个突兀的东西;也不愿意做得跟德国的建筑一模一样,好像租了一个房子。我们要找到一个中国文化和德国文化的最小公倍数,最后我们设计了一个24米乘24米的半开放庭院,加上一个48米乘48米的半围合体量,做下来效果还可以。当然我们在建构方面,在用材方面做得还不够,但是已经是往前走了一小步。

    ▼迈向共享建筑学文章内页,Towards a Sharing Architecture

    ▼中国驻慕尼黑总领馆,Chinese Consulate General in Munich

     

     

     

    Interview
    gooood x Li Zhenyu

     

    ▼李振宇院长,Li Zhenyu

     

    English Text
    A short version of the Chinese text

     

    1. What is CAUP (College of Architecture and Urban Planning) in Tongji University’s general development and characteristics?

    From a worldwide view, CAUP is supported by four distinctive characteristics.

    The first one is the culture and the spirit of our university and college.
    Tongji University features for its spirit of “overcoming difficulties together”, while Feng Jizhong, the director of the Department of Architecture (former CAUP) from 1955 to 1981, defined and featured the culture of the college as “thinking carefully, imagining freely, and learning from others”. The University would like to equip students with an open mind to look forward to something diverse, changing and always keeping forward. Thus, we, CAUP in Tongji University, are second to none in terms of academic background, heritage as well as academic and democratic ideas.

    The second feature is to keep pace with academic frontier.
    Since 1950s, we have paid much attention to modernism, which is more avant-garde for architectural fields in China, even all over the world. When it came to 1980s, we began to focus on pluralistic ideas which came into being after the modernism.

    Other than the architecture, we also work on urban planning, such as Garden City and the urban planning philosophy came up by Le Corbusier. In 2003, our college has emphasized four new development directions like “ecological city, green building, digital design and heritage conservation”.We have achieved a lot in these four fields in the past 15 years.

    The third characteristic is international cooperation.
    The international cooperation provides CAUP with a great opportunity to promote our architecture, planning and landscape academic education. Till now, we have held 29 innovative cases, the cast majority of which is related to our Talent Development Program. We organize the International Construction Festival for freshmen, as well as Painting From Life Abroad Program and Architecutral Tour Program for sophomore. For senior students and those  who are preparing for their thesis designs, there are opportunities for them to involve in international joint design programs. In addition, our graduate department has 19 Bidirectional Dual Degree Development Program, an International Doctoral School specifically for Ph.D, and the research center with the international associated research lab. Each year, we hold a lot of public lectures, including 150 international speeches and invite about 10 modular experts to give lectures. Among the architects that have once won the honor of Prizker Price, 50% of them have given lectures at our college. CAUP has been an international educational institution in architecture design, urban planning and landscape design.

    The fourth one is AUL-port.
    We aim to build Tongji University as an AUL-port. In this port, everyone is invited to come and share with us. That means whoever you are, you can come and share our education resources as well as our ideals and beliefs about the academy and majors. Not limited to theories, you can also apply your ideas to the practices, which is our fourth characteristic.

    Thanks to the globalization, we become one of the best architecture schools worldwide. In the past four years or so, more than 80 colleges have sent delegations to CAUP to learn and share with us. In addition, we have ranked 18th in the QS World University Rankings by Architecture / Built Environment, which represents that CAUP has become one of the most influential top world-class architecture schools.

     

    2. Under the background of globalization, what achievements in teaching have CAUP reached through the communication and cooperation between Tongji University and worldwide prestige university? And under the impact of globalization, what adjustments have CAUP made towards the core principle of cultivating outstanding talents and architects?

    Being an all-around, multi-level, high-standard and distinctive Architectural and Urban Planning School is our goal in globalization.

    What is all-around? For our students, they will receive international class from entering the college all the way to their graduation of Ph.D, even post-doctoral, which will leave a strong impact on their entire career. Just like what I have mentioned above, there is an international construction festival at the end of our students’ first academic year. Every year, 50 to 60 paperboard structures are built during the festival, half of which are by students of Tongji University. About a quarter of the participates are from other domestic universities and the others are from abroad.  That means a lot to students – they will consider themselves as someone with global horizons and ideas, driving them to see not only the things happening in their daily life, but also the development of the entire architectural industry.

    The number of joined studios had reached 40 per year and we have controled it to a dozen. We can provide our graduates with 36 English courses, where Chinese and Foreign students take their class together. All PhD students are required to join in the International Doctoral School after entering the family of CAUP. Our resources are accessible for everyone in the country. At the same time, we are glad to welcome doctoral students abroad to join us.

    There are countless cases involving international cooperation in the process of talent cultivation, from the undergraduate education to graduate and Ph.D projects. Under such a global background, our mission is to feet on China while eyes on the world.

     

    3. How do you think about the teaching theories and guidelines of the School of Architecture and Urban Planning should cater to the development trend of the market? And in terms of the development of architecture field and social responsibilities, what kind of contributions do you think the architectural school should make?

    I would rather call it combining than catering. Actually, as teachers in architecture school, we have a lot of responsibilities. A truly outstanding first-class university is not employment-oriented. However, if you desire to foster a professional architect, you have to take the demands of markets and society into great consideration. Our former president has emphasized five requirements.

    These requirements are from as follows: students, parents, the society, the subject, and finally, the university. They are different from each other that we need to be much more diverse and open to take different requirements into account. As Confucius said, education is something for all without discrimination. A first-class university should not limit itself to fostering students who can find good jobs, but shaping them as the persons who can contribute to the whole society with their wisdom.

    Education should be multi-level and comprehensive. We are encouraged to create a profound, open and diverse learning environment for our students. We should not involved ourselves into one specific teaching method.

    Under today’s overall background, our higher education is facing four transformations: information, globalization, competition and cooperation. There is logic behind the former three, as that globalization and information lead to competition. And the last one, cooperation, means working together or forming a mechanism.

    For me, I plan to build the university into five P2P platforms, of which the first one is people to people. That is because people can make a discussion regardless of its results only when they are at university. The second one is people to paper. The university is a place where students are fostered to qualify themselves with the abilities of research. The third one is called people to project. We expect our students to acquire the ability of finishing a project indipendently during their study in the school. They should be trained to finish a thing, a design project or something else, individually, while cooperating well with others. The fourth one is called people to practice, since architecture is a practical science. The last one is called peoples to peoples, which embodies that people in different institutions have opportunities to get together. For example, Harvard, MIT, and ETH, etc., can visit us. In addition, we can create a platform to bring together different groups like government agencies, NGOs, people in industrial fields, even a technology company. Media, journalism, and culture can be integrated here.

    A first-class university doesn’t foster a person who only cares about the employment. What we want to foster is a dilligent and innovative person full of ideals. He or she should be a leading talent that can eventually achieve or partially achieve their ideals.

     

    4. In what aspects do you think China’s architectural education should be promoted and improved?

    The coming transformation that the Architecture is facing up with including five aspects. The first aspect is from experience to technology. In the past, we decided the scale of the space based on our experiences, while at present we can take advantage of the algorithm, artificial intelligence and computers to pre-measure the space. Second, the space is transformed from exclusive to sharing. In the past, a room represented an office. However, in the future it probably transforms into a mobile office. Let alone after digitization, the office can appear everywhere. Corresponding to this mode transformation, the form of office space will be changed. The third aspect is from construction to ecology. That means what we do will equal with what we don’t.  In the past, we mainly taught students to do something. Yet now, we need to tell them not to do something, avoiding damage to the environment. Fourth, from modern to contemporary. Modern represents Modernism, which contains a lot of genres and styles, playing an important role in our daily life. Meanwhile, it is our duty to pay attention to the emerging things today, developing what is not thought of in the modernism. Finally, from the aesthetics to the society. For me, it is essential to work on these five aspects.

    In addition, don’t hold the idea that we could teach student something. They learn the knowledge because they have the ability of learning. What can we do with the rapidly changing society? The answer is to face it with an open, pluralistic, inclusive and encouraging attitude. I hope that our architectural education can be more open, diverse and comprehensive, focusing more on young generations’ ideas and learning from them.

     

    5. As the Dean of a most influential college of architecture and urban planning, do you have any suggestions for students?

    First, you should be enthusiastic about life. As an architect, our original intention is the passion and care towards life. You could never finish a good project without caring about life.

    Second, you should qualify a dynamic and open attitude. It is significant for us to accept new things with an inclusive vision.

    Third, you should contribute your academic background to the society. Give yourself some time to think about this question: as an architect, can I make a distinctive contribution from others? As the saying goes, things in China are things in the world, which means you should combine your innovation with the demands of the society.

     

    6. Is there anything you think that China can use as a reference from Germany in terms of architecture and urban planning, since you stayed in Germany for several years and have reached great achievements in academic and cultural exchanges between China and Germany?

    Sino-German exchange is the starting line of my tiny effort in international exchanges. In my view, there are three things that are worthwhile for us to learn from Germany. The first one is that Germany is the origin of modern architecture. Second, Germany has accomplished a tremendous thing in the 1980s, which was inviting architects from all over the world to West Berlin to hold an architecture expo, where they built nearly 200 projects with reviewing and criticizing to previous works. Updating with Cautiousness and Reconstruction with Critics were the two slogans of the event. Third, we should appreciate the pursuits and tastes of Genman architects and German architectural industry. We can use the quality, aesthetics and tastes of Germany as a reference. Actually, the desire for aesthetics plays an important role in their work.

     

    7. You have accomplished great achievements in China’s residential buildings. What do you think are the regrets existing in China’s current residential buildings and the environment? Can you give us an overall image of China’s future residential buildings and living environment in your imagination?

    We have done a lot of good projects, yet I think there is still something that I can improve. For residential buildings, I have three suggestions. First, I think our affordable housing, including relocating housing and resettlement housing, can be designed less standardized, meaning that we should seek diversity on the basis of unity.

    Second, I don’t think we should require the promotion of the standard unilaterally. For instance, our daylighting standards are the most severe in the world, which sacrificed a lot of public rights in order to guarantee personal rights. We should look for a balance between public and private rights, which is to say that we should keep control of urban image while pursuing profits of markets.

    Third, it is good change that we have built shelters for everyone. Thus we should develop multiple living systems for different needs. Houses for rent are severely scarce in our country. If we can design some stable rent houses targeting at young people and low-income middle-class groups, our city will be much more diverse, open and interesting. Another problem is in parking. The parking standards are the same, no matter for low-rent housing or for affordable housing, though they may have different needs. I think that is what we can improve.

     

    8. What is your focus on your current design?

    Sharing comes the priority in my design. I have written an article namedTowards Shared Architecture, which illustrates some potential ideas brought by the form changes created by sharing. Besides, I have once thought up with an idea of “Vernacular architecture, Typological contribution”. “Vernacular architecture” is related to our daily life. Some architects are too proud to design something secular, such as commercial residential buildings, which connect closely with our daily life. “Typological contribution” means accomplishing something marvelous by using general materials and forms, like making innovation in space  and form.

     

    More: Tongji University on gooood

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